Reuters, 3 April 2013
Western envoys to attend ICC-indictee Kenyatta's inauguration
By Edmund Blair
'Analysts said Western businesses may also put pressure on their governments to avoid losing their foothold in Kenya or to prevent any harm coming to investment plans in a nation that could be at the center of an oil and gas boom in east Africa.
"That is why Europe is back pedaling a bit," said Patrick Smith of Africa Confidential, a fortnightly journal. He added that handling ties with Kenyatta's government "is going to be a real test of diplomatic and commercial skills."'
BBC Mundo, 13 February 2013
¿Milagro africano o nueva rapiña colonial?
By Marcelo Justo
'Sin embargo, el subdirector de la revista especializada Africa Confidential, Andrew Weir, alerta que no es la primera vez que se vive este optimismo.
"Las compañías energéticas, China y el sector
financiero están viendo grandes oportunidades. El tema es que África ya
ha vivido esto. La pregunta clave es a quién beneficia y de qué modo
contribuye al desarrollo", señaló Weir a BBC Mundo.'
The Guardian, 14 January 2013
Mali conflict: France has opened gates of hell, say rebels
By Afua Hirsch and Kim Willsher
Patrick Smith: "There is a genuine fear that these people could come from north Mali and set off bombs on the Champs Elysées."
BBC Radio 4 – The World Tonight, 11 January 2013
French troops are taking part in operations against Islamists in northern Mali
Patrick Smith, talks to David Eades: 'French security forces worry about Jihadi elements coming into France.'
The Observer, 27 October 2012
The man who could determine whether the west is drawn into Mali's war
By Peter Beaumont
'Patrick Smith of the Africa Confidential newsletter, who was in Paris after the MNLA delegation, believes Ag Ghaly will be offered a choice. "There's a growing desire to reach out to him
to say you can ally with us and help work out a deal for a
decentralised north. If not, it's war and you'll end up on a list with
other al-Qaida-associated leaders wondering when a drone is coming for you."'
The Economist, 5 October 2012
Sierra Leone: Presidential calculations
'In July, an American businessman posted a vituperative open letter on the internet accusing Mr Sam Sumana of failing to repay loans worth thousands of dollars. The following month Africa Confidential reported accusations that Mr Sam Sumana had diverted commercial
investments into campaign funds for the ruling All People’s Congress
(APC) party before the last presidential election in 2007.'
Reuters 10 September 2012
Analysis - Pressure from below strains Angola MPLA monolith
"The social inequity is only matched by the political inequity," said Patrick Smith, editor of Africa Confidential, the respected newsletter analysing the continent.
"I don't see where the model is going. The system looks after the elite, but that's all ... there is a huge question mark about the political future," he added.'
BBC News Magazine, 13 June 2012
Spain is not Uganda. Discuss.
'Patrick Smith, editor of newsletter Africa Confidential:
"[The text message] connotes old-fashioned European thinking from almost
the 19th Century, that there are all these different worlds within the
world and Africa is out there, completely cut off and bumbling along. If
you go to Africa today, there's a lot of people, many of them European,
touting for business, trying to get in on the economic growth. The
claimed unemployment figure of 4.2% seems extremely low - most countries
in the region are recording unemployment at 15-20% and youth
unemployment at 30-40%. But it's a developing economy and an entirely
different ballgame from Europe, which is like the geriatric continent
trying to manage old age gracefully, whereas Africa is young and growing
Foreign Policy, May/June 2012
A giant among giants
By Ken Silverstein
[Glencore] 'recently announced a $90 billion takeover of Xstrata, a
global mining giant in which it already holds a 34 percent stake; if the
deal goes through, Glencore will rule over an "empire stretching from
the Sahara to South Africa," as the Africa Confidential newsletter put it.'
Council on Foreign Relations, 29 May 2012
"Africa Day" in South Africa and President Jacob Zuma's rivals
By John Campbell
'Looking toward the December ANC party convention in December, Africa Confidential is running a story on Zuma’s likely challengers for president of the party. It credibly identifies: Cyril Ramaphosa, an
architect of the 1994 transition and now a business tycoon; Kglama
Motlanthe, the sitting vice president; and Tokyo Sexwale, now a minister
and former premier of Gauteng (Johannesburg.)'
Foreign Policy, 18 May 2012
Remember General Dabi?
By Colum Lynch
'As a senior aide to president Omar al-Bashir,
Dabi was assigned the task last year of shepherding a panel of U.N. experts
charged with monitoring the enforcement of U.N. sanctions in Darfur, according
to a leaked report by the panel.
which was first published by Africa Confidential last month, provides a
detailed account of how Dabi and his associates thwarted the U.N. Security
Council panel's efforts to investigate abuses of a U.N. travel ban and arms
Foreign Policy, 30 April 2012
What's the point of U.N. sanctions in Darfur when even the U.N. flouts them?
By Colum Lynch
'The Tek episode is simply one nugget buried away in a confidential 80-plus page report, first reported by Africa Confidential,
that documents systematic violations of a six-year-old U.N. arms
embargo, travel ban, and asset freeze, imposed on Khartoum and rebel
leaders in an effort to contain the violence in Sudanese province.'
Reuters, 16 January 2012
UPDATE 1-Nigeria: will it fall apart or can it hold?
[Goodluck Jonathan is] "eerily calm considering we could be weeks away from a major confrontation," said Africa Confidential editor Patrick Smith.
"The absolute failure ... to wheel on southerners and northerners at
the same time to say this is a national crisis and we have to pull
together, is striking."
Sudan Tribune, 31 December 2011
A Timeline for Catastrophe: Sudan’s continuing slide toward war
By Eric Reeves
Africa Confidential (November 19, 2010) reports the view of Dinka Ngok civil society: "Mbeki was basically telling the Ngok that the Abyei Protocol and PCA
boundaries must all be renegotiated because the Misseriya wouldn’t
budge, [said one prominent member of Abyei civil society]."
Financial Times, 22 November 2011
militants: Locals see the benefits of an end to hostilities
editor of Africa
Confidential, says: “One of the functions of the
militias was to lead the charge for the area’s politicians,
so some fighters could get dragged into the political
Day, 8 September 2011
Gaddafy and the OAU
– Thirty years ago
Kaye Whiteman writes: 'My old friend the
late Hon. Godfrey Morrison, at one time
editor of Africa Confidential, who was with me
reporting on the failed OAU Tripoli summit Mark 2 of November 1982,
used to refer to the Libyan leader as a
“drama queen,” a reference, perhaps, to the thrill
derived from playing a central role, no matter what the cost. It was
the same frantic and intemperate quality that prevented him from being
taken seriously as a successor to Nasser
in the Arab world, or to Nkrumah in
Newsnight, 24 August 2011
Islamists will move in to fill Libya power vacuum
Colonel Moammar el Gaddafi claimed that
if he was ousted from power
Islamist radicals would seize control of Libya. Patrick
Smith speaks to Newsnight's Robin
Denselow about whether he is likely to be proven right
TIME Magazine, 1
Prison or Exile: Gadaffi Is Out of
"My understanding is that they would be
delighted if he did a duck," Smith
Los Angeles Times 11 May 2011
expects Kadafi's regime to eventually collapse
By Henry Chu
News Magazine, 14 April 2011
What happens to deposed leaders?
'The creation of the International Criminal Court in 1998 narrowed the number of countries that would accept a deposed leader, says Patrick Smith, editor of the London-based newsletter Africa Confidential.'
News, 4 April 2011
historical background: Ivory Coast's deline into
AC's Patrick Smith joins the BBC's Allan
Little to look at how
the once prosperous Ivory Coast declined from being an African success
story, to a county mired in civil war.
Financial Times, 21 March
Oil to freeze contracts
By Christopher Thompson and David
Daily Monitor, 13 March 2011
In the past 10 years, four sons have succeeded their
fathers directly as presidents. For others, it hasn’t been
BBC Focus on Africa, 23 December 2010
End of Year Quiz
If you missed this on the radio, tune in online to Ahmed Rajab, Robin White, Joseph Warungu and our very own Patrick Smith being put through their paces by Veronique Edwards
Resonance FM, 25
McTernan on Talking
GNTV, 7 January 2011
bottom line: Patrick Smith
Buchi Madu speaks to Patrick
Smith, Editor of Africa Confidential,
about Niger Delta issues and how they could impact the presidential
elections in May.
29 October 2010
seizes pro-Besigye book
Government officials have seized a
of books that largely
profile opposition leader Dr Kizza Besigye’s challenge to
Museveni in the 2001 and 2006 general elections. The book titled:
Correct Line? Uganda under Museveni” is authored by Dr Olive
Kobusingye, a surgeon.
4 News, 3 August 2010
rights fears over 'undemocratic' Rwandan poll
As Rwandans prepare to vote in only the
post-genocide presidential elections, Human Rights Watch tells Channel
4 News laws intended to prevent another slaughter have instead been
used to suppress free speech.
Policy, 26 February 2010
junta hires ex-war crimes prosecutors - and gets a favorable report
former war-crimes specialists were recently hired as consultants for
Guinea's military junta after it was accused of massacring civilians -
and produced a secret report downplaying the violence.
BBC Radio 4 – The World Tonight, 29 March 2013
A UN peacekeeping force in DRC gets an "offensive" mandate for the first time
Patrick Smith talks to David Eades: "I think it can make a difference if it has the resources to do the job." (Around 8 minutes in).
Reuters, 11 March 2013
Analysis: Western states walk diplomatic tight-rope over Kenyatta win
By Edmund Blair
"It is extremely problematic for the West partly because several Western officials inserted themselves into the Kenyan election campaign and made pretty clear they thought Kenyans should not vote for Kenyatta," said Africa Confidential editor Patrick Smith. "That triggered ... the opposite response."
Reuters, 1 March 2013
Preview: Kenya braces for repeat of election bloodshed
By Edmund Blair
'"Many people are saying they don't think Kenyans are going to be suckered into another round of clashes led by the political elite," said Africa Confidential editor Patrick Smith.
"But at the end of the day this is a bare-knuckle, brutal contest in which the stakes have rarely been higher," he said.'
The New York Times, 11 February 2013
France Takes a Step Back in Its History
By Alan Cowell
'“We face a threat that concerns the entire world,” Mr. Hollande told the United Nations in September.
That assessment, said Patrick Smith, the editor of a London-based newsletter, Africa Confidential, has spread a “geopolitical patina” over the “very, very local” mistakes and miscalculations in Mali and elsewhere.'
VICE, 22 January 2013
Is this the century of Africa's rise?
By Oscar Rickett
'The problem, though, is that most of this wealth is extractive. There is, as Patrick Smith, editor of Africa Confidential,
told me, a “lack of value added on the African side.” “The energy
companies are seeing massive domestic demand from Asia and they are
capitalizing on that,” he said.'
Council on Foreign Relations, 24 October 2012
ANC Party Politics and the Upcoming Convention
By John Campbell
'The ANC candidates for presidency and vice presidency can count on support from most of the country’s black population, making victory for its nominees in national elections almost a foregone conclusion. Africa Confidential has published an excellent primer on the current state of play inside the ANC.'
Council on Foreign Relations, 11 October 2012
Nigeria’s Economic Reforms in Trouble?
By John Campbell
'Africa Confidential published on October 5, a clear-eyed analysis of the challenges facing Nigeria’s economic reformers and concludes that those blocking reform “are winning hands down.” Central Bank Governor Lamido Sanusi states publicly that oil theft is massive and organized. He also
questions whether, in fact, the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation
(NNPC) actually knows how much oil is produced–NNPC says 2.7 million
barrels a day.'
Los Angeles Times, 21 August 2012
Ethiopian officials: No major change after Meles Zenawi's death
'Patrick Smith, editor of the analytical journal Africa Confidential, predicted that Ethiopia’s military and ruling party leadership would not change tack on hitting Islamic extremists hard.
“They’re absolutely agreed that Ethiopia should be in Somalia and they should go in and out of Somalia when they feel like it. And that is not going to change with Meles’ death,” he said.'
Bloomberg, 25 July 2012
Ghana's ruling party seeks unity after President's death
By Mike Cohen, Franz Wild and Ekow Dontoh
“You have sentiment, you have the renewal factor, and Mills was clearly extremely ill,” Patrick Smith, editor of the London-based newsletter Africa Confidential, said today by phone from Paris. “Mahama is young, has a lot of energy and is very good with the media.”
Business Day, 26 June 2012
Royal Bafokeng may see red soon
By David Gleason
'Africa Confidential (June 22) claims the Guinean government’s decision to "shut down a bid by South African businessmen who wield high-level political connections to run its national mining company follows growing pressure from international financial institutions and multinational mining companies". The magazine names Hennig and Mark Willcox as two of the key South Africans linked to the plan.'
African Aguments, 28 May 2012
Take a holiday in Somaliland: Journey to the state that isn't
By Magnus Taylor
'A more concrete example is provided by Africa Confidential, which
recently reported that the Hong Kong oil company PetroTrans is likely to
pull out of investing in the port of Berbera, having been unable to
obtain insurance for the Liquified Natural Gas plant it was to build.
The plant was to link up gas fields in Ethiopia’s Ogaden region with
export facilities on the coast, and will now see Somaliland lose out to
its tiny, but strategically important neighbour Djibouti.'
Sudan Tribune, 25 May 2012
Darfur in the still deepening shadow of lies
By Eric Reeves
'The leaked report, which
deeply offended both Russia and China with its frank account of their
massive violations of the Darfur arms embargo, was first reported by Africa Confidential on April 13, 2012; AC summarized its assessment of
the report by noting that "the Darfur crisis, far from winding down as
Khartoum and some press reports suggest, is worsening, with new
incidents of ethnic cleansing, arms deliveries and aerial bombing." The
report had been submitted to the UN in January 2012.'
Reuters, 13 May 2012
Analysis: Nigeria president unlikely to risk oil graft crackdown
By Joe Brock
'"I don't think we're going to see high level officials in jail ... that would imply his regime had imploded," said Patrick Smith, editor of Africa Confidential.'
Foreign Policy, 7 May 2012
The silence in Sudan
By Colum Lynch
'A group of three former U.N. experts, meanwhile, recently wrote a confidential report claiming that the U.N. mission in Darfur has minimized critical
reporting of government abuses, downplaying a series of attacks against
the Zaghawa tribe last year that displaced 70,000 people, and which
amounted to ethnic cleansing.'
The Insider, 29 April 2012
Masiyiwa says Jonathan Moyo and Ibbo Mandaza are former CIO
'Masiyiwa said he was "intrigued" by the rumours of a "united front" political movement, but was extremely cautious.
'He also denied that he had funded or supported the "united front" and said that he personally called Patrick Smith, editor of Africa Confidential, to complain about the story linking him to the new movement.'
Popbitch, March 2012
In 2008 the Americans helped the Ugandans launch a massive surprise attack on Kony. Kony escaped at the last minute. Well, I expect he used some kind of weird African juju.
Or a Nokia.
Because the Ugandan army LEAKED THE INFORMATION THEY WERE COMING so he could escape in time. It’s not me saying this, it’s the most respected source in African journalism, Africa Confidential Vol 52 – N° 23. [USA joins fight against LRA]
BBC Newshour, 14 January 2012
Suicide bomb kills Basra pilgrims; elections in Taiwan; and special focus on Nigeria
Africa Confidential's editor Patrick Smith speaks to Julian Marshall in the special focus on Nigeria.
Vanguard, 29 December 2011
Away from home this Christmas
By Is’ haq Modibbo Kawu
'...Africa Confidential... described the “staggering sum” as “a Boko Haram campaign bonanza for the generals and private security companies”...'
Reuters, 13 December 2011
S.Leone's "Timbergate" threatens president poll bid
'The journal Africa Confidential published an article on Nov. 18 criticising the ACC's decision earlier this year to settle a major case involving the social security agency out of court, rather than seeking prosecutions.'
BBC News Africa, 7 October 2011
Q&A: Cameroon presidential elections
Africa Confidential's editor Patrick Smith says that critics are rare in Cameroon and are soon silenced.
iMaverick/All Africa Global Media, 16 September 2011
Stability, snakes and salacious gossip – a Zambian election preview [analysis]
'As Africa Confidential explained: "Food and fuel prices are Sata's main targets, as is the increasing Asian commercial presence. Such was the virulence of his 2006 campaign that Chinese ambassador Li Baodong threatened to cut ties if Sata won."'
Voice of America, 12 September 2011
Zimbabwe Advances Modestly in Global Competitiveness Rankings
Africa Confidential editor Patrick Smith said Zimbabwe has a distance to go to become globally competitive though the economy is "a lot more predictable and disciplined" so from a big-company standpoint "that means the business climate is much more benign."
Channel 4 News, 7 September 2011
Gaddafi not the only victim of Libya's
'Andy Weir, associate editor of Africa
Confidential, told Channel 4 News: "South
African President Jacob Zuma
feels a strong loyalty towards Gadaffi.
He's led delegations to Tripoli when they were trying to negotiate out
of the crisis.'
The Nation, 7 September 2011
Blowback in Somalia
The Somali government has
portrayed this as a military victory and has declared the beginning of
the end of the group. However, “These assessments owe more to
wishful thinking than reality,” according to an analysis
published in the well-respected journal Africa Confidential.
BBC, 16 August 2011
Solomon Mujuru: Obituary of a Zimbabwean
"He had all the mystique of a liberation war hero that has served him
to present-day politics," Patrick Smith,
editor of the London-based Africa Confidential
magazine, told the BBC's Focus on Africa programme.
Confidential's mischief-making enterprise in reporting Sierra Leone's
The view from the pro-All People's
Congress website Cocorioko
234Next.com, 31 May 2011
Africa lures investors, but is it
Christian Science Monitor,
17 May 2011
in Sudan's Southern Kordofan marred
by disputed result
By Amanda Hsiao,
The Huffington Post,
28 April 2011
The Bloody Sideshow in Sudan
and human rights activist Rebecca Tinsley reports
7 April 2011
breakdown' in Ivory Coast
AC's Patrick Smith talks
about the crisis the country faces now
BBC World Service, 4 April
Have Your Say, 1800 GMT
AC's Patrick Smith joins a panel of
experts to discuss the
situation in Côte d'Ivoire
Newspapers, 4 April 2011
finds that money can't buy friends in Africa
By Shashank Bengali
guardian.co.uk Poverty Matters Blog, 8 February
should learn the emerging lessons of Egypt
Posted by Peter Moszynski
Africa's largest country is about to be split into two, and there is
much that needs to be done politically, economically – and,
Christian Science Monitor, 23 November 2010
of Sudan referendum, north and south are arming a border region
One of the most critical places for the Sudan referendum is
Abyei, a border region that has to decide whether to join the north or
south. Expecting a confrontation, both sides are arming the area.
The Zimbabwean, 20 October 2010
firm in FARC arms scandal
Zimbabwe Defence Industries (ZDI) has been sucked into
trafficking scandal involving rogue Ecuadorian bishop Walter Crespo,
amid allegations that the shadowy Zimbabwean army-run company supplied
some of the weapons smuggled by Crespo to Colombian rebels.
World Service Africa, December 2009
Africa Video Quiz 2009
much do you remember of the past year in Africa?
Focus on Africa quiz contestants, Ahmed Rajab, Cameron
Duodu, Patrick Smith and Robin White join quiz mistress, Veronique
Edwards to pose the questions.
10 January 2010
fear and confusion: welcome to the Horn of Africa
Yemen, Somalia and beyond, the
strife-torn region has provided disturbing evidence that its myriad
problems cannot be ignored – and that the west must see the
between them all
Public Radio, 5
real-life government coup made for TV
Listen to the interview
Mann was granted amnesty on
government of Equatorial Guinea. This is
overthrow in a coup plot that went awry in 2004. Mann was sentenced to
34 years in prison though he only served 15 months before returning
home to Britain yesterday. Host Michel
talks with Patrick Smith, Editor of Africa
Confidential, about the coup plot and the
legacy of Simon Mann.
lies ahead for Africa in 2009?
York Sun, 11 September 2008
Widens Iran Sanctions As Drone Is Reported In Darfur
Standard, Botswana, 5 August
Mugabe cronies reportedly
stashing US dollars into foreign accounts
tycoon rides political upheaval
Radio Africa, Zimbabwe, 22 July 2008
chefs transferring millions outside the country
World Service radio, 16 July 2008
Johnson speaks to Patrick Smith about Zimbabwe's economy
Southern African, 14 July 2008
Economy Run By Presidential Daughters And
Southern African, 14 July 2008
Mugabe’s Government Gets Its Money
Daily Mail, 26 June 2008
the desperate or prolonging their misery? The British firms doing
business with Zimbabwe
3 Jul 2008
Mugabe is watershed for African Union
Socialist Website, 18 June 2008
erupts over Eritrean armed incursion into Djibouti
News, 29 April 2008
on Nigeria's Obasanjo
International Herald Tribune 15
Africa visit seen more about strategy
News, 29 December 2007
Report - Divided they fall: the Kenyan opposition
Sunday Herald (Scotland), 16
facing third civil war in 10 years
Focus on Africa, 18 June 2007
the eye of the storm
28 January 2007
millions help to prop up Mugabe regime
News, 26 October 2006
offered to Africa's leaders
News, 25 March 2006
stirs debate over sullied leaders
Focus on Africa
but corruption soars
News, 3 August 2005
News, 7 July 2005
party accepts Burundi poll
News, 11 March 2005
Commission report: Analysis
News, 11 February 2005
Africa's democratic test case
Radio Four, File on 4, 30 November 2004
'funding corrupt deals'
News, 27 August 2004
leader' found guilty
on Africa, 21 April 2004
News, 23 February 2003
News, 23 February 2002
Smith on the killing of Jonas Savimbi
News, 5 July 2001
welcome Sudan peace plan
News, 15 February 2001
Republic of Congo war
interview with Patrick Smith as African leaders
gather in Lusaka for a summit to try and end the conflict in the DRC
News, 26 May 2000
list for Congo mining'
News, 23 November 1999
Moi confronts corruption critics
News, 23 November 1999
Kenyan leader denies foreign cash
Wordwide, 7 December
arrested after Khartoum protest
25 November 2009
Vredesmissie maakt crisis in Congo erger
VN-missie Congo mislukt'
Times, 12 November 2009
and India engaged in 21st century 'scramble for
Mann, freed dog of war, is demanding justice
more than five years in jail, the British
mercenary is seeking
vengeance on others he says were part of the failed 'Wonga Coup'
including Mark Thatcher. By Tracy
Rajeev Syal and Patrick
Alberizzi of Corriere
della Sera on the ousting of President Marc Ravolomanana in
I militari sono divisi. Si rischia il bagno di sangue
Radio Africa, 2 March
Magazine, 30 September 2008
Halliburton Bribery Investigation proceeding in UK and US
of America, 8 September 2008
Sudan Denies it
Receives Iranian Military Help
Monde, 4 August 2008
Turner quitte BAE Systems sur un bilan mitigé
23 July 2008
hear alarm bells as ICC targets Sudan's Bashir
de Madagascar, 17 July 2008
Africa polls bring hope but
big hurdles lie ahead
of America, 14 July 2008
Africa's Mbeki To Brief AU's Ping On Zimbabwe Talks Process
Patrick Smith - Download (MP3)
Patrick Smith - Listen (MP3)
of War and Peace Reporting, 30 June
Union urged to act on Zimbabwe
Telegraph, 15 June 2008
accused of giving Robert Mugabe 'financial lifeline'
15 June 2008
Chartered at centre of Zimbabwe sanctions inquiry
News, 17 March 2008
can Cameroon's Biya rule?
News, 3 January 2008
glance: Kenya unrest
News Magazine, 29 November 2007
News, 24 September 2007
diaspora 'may get vote'
News, 26 April 2007
Nigeria go Orange?
News, 2 January 2007
year of terror tactics
Observer, 10 September 2006
accused of covert operations in Somalia
Independent, 14 February 2006
Dr Beko Ransome-Kuti, Nigerian human rights
News, 29 December 2005
year of democratic reverses
News, 2 August 2005
News, 6 July 2005
peaceful Burundi poll
News, 5 March 2005
challenged on Africa issues
News, 13 January 2005
peace paves way for oil deals
News Online Magazine, 6 October 2004
Africa in hand
News, 27 August 2004
Guilty: Simon Mann convicted in Zimbabwe
interview with Patrick Smith about Simon Mann's
conviction in Zimbabwe
News, 11 March 2004
Guinea: Ripe for a coup
News, 25 February 2002
diamonds after Savimbi
News, 19 December 2001
News, 26 September 2001
price for war
News, 5 July 2001
Lusk, Deputy Editor, Africa Confidential,
discusses the Libyan/Egyptian initiative for Sudan
News, 19 December 2001
Smith discusses corruption in Tanzania
News, 29 May 2000
Smith talks about finding a political solution
in Sierra Leone
News, 9 July 1998
Smith on the death of Chief Abiola
News, 4 January 1998
Report - President Moi: an enduring face of Africa